خانواده آسراسه آهه Aceraceae
خانواده آسراسه آهه Aceraceae

خانواده آسراسه آهه Aceraceae

~  Sapindaceae
 
فرم کلی تیره: گیاهانی درختی و درختچه ای. برگ ها خزاندار؛ متقابل؛ پهن؛ دارای دمبرگ؛ ساده یا مرکب؛ برگ های مرکب بصورت سه برگچه ای یا پنج برگچه ای. پهنک برگ های ساده بصورت بریده بریده یا یکپارچه؛ درصورت بریده بریده بودن به شکل پرمانند یا پنجه ای؛ با رگبرگ های پرمانند یا پنجه ای. برگ ها بی گوشوارک. حاشیه پهنک برگ یکپارچه یا کنگره دار یا دندانه دار. اندام های رویشی فلس مانند یا غیرفلس مانند.
آناتومی برگ: پهنک برگ دارای قسمت پشتی و شکمی مشخص یا مرکزی. اپیدرم محوری دارای برآمدگی یا فاقد برآمدگی. اغلب دارای اپیدرم موسیلاژدار. روزنه ها عمدتاً محدود به یک سطح برگ؛ آنوموسیتیک. دارای کرک؛ غیرغده ای و غده ای؛ تک یاخته ای و چندیاخته ای. فاقد زیرپوست محوری. مزوفیل حاوی بلور. رگبرگ های کوچکتر فاقد سلول های انتقال دهنده ی آبکش.
 
آناتومی ساقه: ساقه های جوان دارای میانگره های سخت. دارای کامبیوم چوب پنبه ای. گره ها سه حفره ای. بافت های آوندی اولیه در یک استوانه، بدون دسته های جدا؛ مجاور هم. فاقد آبکش داخلی. توسعه ی لایه ضخیم شونده ثانویه از یک حلقه کامبیوم عادی.
 
تولیدمثل و گرده افشانی: گیاهانی یک پایه ی نر، یا دوپایه، یا دوپایه ی نر. گرده افشانی توسط حشرات.
 
گل آذین، میوه و دانه: گل ها بصورت مجتمع در گل آذین های خوشه ای. گل آذین ها انتهایی یا جانبی. گل ها منظم؛ چرخه ای. فاقد هیپانتیوم آزاد. دارای صفحه زیرتخمدانی یا فاقد آن.
 
میوه غیرگوشتی؛ شیزوکارپی. پراکندگی توسط باد. بذور غیرآندوسپرمی. جنین بخوبی تمایزیافته. دارای دو لپه ی لوله ای. جنین دارای انحنا.
 
فیزیولوژی، فیتوشیمی: گیاهانی C3 . دارای سوکروز، یا اولیگوساکاریدها + سوکروز، یا الکل قندی + اولیگوساکاریدها + سوکروز. غیرسیانوژنی. دارای آلکالوئیدها یا فاقد آنها. فاقد آبورتین. عدم وجود آیریدوئیدها. دارای ساپونین ها / ساپوژنین ها یا فاقد آنها. دارای پروآنتوسیانیدین ها؛ سیانیدین، یا سیانیدین و دلفینیدین. دارای فلاونول ها؛ کمفرول و کوئرستین، یا کمفرول، کوئرستین و مایریستین. دارای الاژیک اسید یا فاقد آن. عدم تجمع آلومینیوم.
 
جغرافیا، سیتولوژی: نواحی معتدل. معتدل شمالی و کوه های گرمسیری. X=13 .
 
طبقه بندی: زیررده دولپه ای ها، راسته Sapindales .
 
دارای حدود 200 گونه و دو جنس Acer, Dipteronia .
 
Boxelder (Ashleaf Maple)
(Acer Negundo)
Japanese Maple
(Acer palmatum)
Norway Maple
(Acer platanoides)
Red Maple
(Acer rubrum)
Silver Maple
(Acer saccharinum)
Sugar Maple
(Acer saccharum)
 
1. A. campestre L. Field Maple Shrub or tree, usually to 12 m, occasionally to 25 m; branchlets glabrous or pubescent, often becoming corky. Leaves 3-5-lobed, 5-10 cm cross, the lobes wide, obtuse, and entire or the middle one 3-lobed, dull green above, pubescent beneath; petioles about as long the blade, with milky juice. Fruit with horizontally spreading wings. Native to Europe and western Asia. Leaves yellow in the fall.
 
2. A. circinatum Pursh Vine Maple Small shrub or tree, to 12 m, when growing in the light, almost vinelike when growing in the shade; branchlets glabrous. Leaves 7-9-lobed, 6-12 cm, cordate, the lobes acute, irregularly and doubly serrate, bright green, puberulous beneath when young, becoming glabrous; petioles 2.5-3.5 cm. Flowers with purple sepals and white petals; pedicels glabrous. Fruit rose-colored, the wings spreading almost horizontally. Native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, also cultivated. Fall colors red and orange.
 
3. A. diabolicum Koch Diabolical Maple Tree, to 10 m; branchlets pubescent. Leaves 5-lobed, 10-16 cm across, pale green and sparsely pubescent beneath. Staminate flowers on long, pendulous, pubescent pedicels, with wholly to partly united sepals and no petals. Pistillate flowers in few-flowered racemes, with separate sepals and separate petals. Fruit with parallel or slightly spreading wings, strongly veined and bristly over the seed. Native to Japan.
 
4. A. ginnala Maxim. Amur Maple Shrub or tree, to 7 m; branchlets glabrous. Leaves 3-lobed, 4-8 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, light green and glabrous below, the margins doubly serrate. Flowers in long-peduncled panicle, yellow, fragrant. Fruit with nearly parallel wings, the nutlet about 2.5 cm long. Native to central and northern China.
 
5. A. glabrum Rocky Mountain Maple Shrub or small tree, to 8 m; branchlets glabrous. Leaves 3-5 lobed or 2-3 parted, 7-12 cm across, pale green or glaucescent beneath. Flowers in corymbs of 6-15, greenish-yellow. Fruit with parallel to slightly spreading wings, glabrous, often rose-colored in summer. Native to western North America, from Montana to California and New Mexico.
 
6. A. grandidentatum Nutt. Bigtooth Maple Tree, to 12 m, with dark brown scaly bark bark. Leaves 3-5 lobed, with broad, shallow sinuses, 5-8 cm across, the lobes acute or obtuse, glaucescent and pubescent beneath, particularly on the veins. Flowers on drooping, villous pedicels. Fruit with spreading wings, often rose-colored in mid-summer. Native to the Rocky Mountains, from Utah and Wyoming to New Mexico and northern Mexico.
 
7. A. griseum (Franch.) Pax. Paperbark Maple Tree to 8 m, with cinnamon brown bark, separating in thin papery flakes. Branchlets initally pubescent, becoming glabrous. Leaflets 3, 3-6 cm long, elliptic to ovate-oblong, acute, the middle leaflet shortly stalked and coarsely toothed with larg4e, blunt teeth, the lateral leaflets subsessile with lobulate margins. Flowers in few-flowered cymes, the pedicels pubescent; Fruit pendulous, the wings spreading at an acute to right angle, the seed area tomentose. Native to western China. The flaky bark is the most distinctive features of this species.
 
8. A. japonicum Thunb. Japanese Maple Shrub or tree, to ? m. Branchlets glabrous when young.. Leaves 7-11-lobed, 8-14 cm across, the lobes acuminate and doubly serrate, light green with silky hairs when young, glabrous except on the veins beneath when mature. Flowers in long-stalked corymbs, purplish, the pedicels glabrous or silky. Fruit with wings obtusely spreading to horizontal, pubescent when young but becoming glabrous. Native to Japan.
 
9. A. macrophyllum Pursh Bigleaf Maple Tree, to 30 m. branchlets glabrous. Leaves deeply 3-5 lobed, 2-30 cm across, the middle lobe usually 3-lobed, the others lobulate, the under side pale green and pubescent when young. Flowers in narrow pendulous panicles, yellowish and fragrant; pedicels glabrous. Fruit with wings parallel to right-angled, the seed area with stiff, yellow hairs. Fall foliage bright orange. Native to the west coast of North America, from Alaska to northern California.
 
10. A. mandschuricum Maxim. Manchurian Maple Shrub or tree, to 10 m. Branchlets glabrous. Leaflets 3, 3-6 cm long, dark green above, glaucous beneath and pubescent on the midrib; petiole 6-10 cm, red. Pedicels pubescent. Flowers in 3-5-flowered cymes. Fruit pendulous, spreading at an acute to obtuse angle, the seed area reticulate. Native to Manchuria and Korea. The red petioles contrast attractively with the dark green leaves.
 
11. A. negundo L. Box-Elder Trees to 20 m tall; branchlets glabrous. Leaflets 3-5(-9), 5-10 cm long, ovate-lance-oblong, bright green above, paler green and almost glabrous to slightly pubescent below, acuminate with coarsely serrate margins, the terminal leaflet sometimes 3-lobed, petiole 5-8 cm, green. Flowers yellowish green, before the leaves. Staminate inflorescence a pendulous corymb; pistillate inflorescence a pendulous raceme. Fruits glabrous, wings diverging at an acute angle, usually incurved. Native to western North America. Hardier and more drought resistant than most species.
 
12. A. nigrum Michaux f. Black Maple Tree, to 40 m, with deeply furrowed black bark; branchlets initially pilose, becoming glabrous. Leaves 3-(occasionally 5-)lobed, 10-14 cm across, deeply cordate, the lobes acute. Entire or obtusely toothed, the sides of the blade drooping, dull green above, yellowish green and pilose beneath; petioles 8-12 cm, usually pubescent. Flowers yellowish-green in pendulous pedicels in subsessile cymes; pedicels hairy. Fruit wings varying from nearly parallel to diverging, glabrous. Native to eastern North America.
 
13. A. nikoense Maxim. Nikko Maple Tree, to 15 m. Branchlets pilose for 2 years, then glabrate. Leaflets 3, 5-12 cm long, ovate to elliptic-oblong, villous beneath, acute, the margins obtusely dentate to nearly entire; terminal leaflet shortly stalked, the lateral leaflets subsessile; petioles 2-4 cm long, densely pilose. Flowers yellow, in usually 3-flowered nodding cymes, the cymes densely pubescent. Fruit with wings parallel or spreading at right angle, the seed area densely pubescent. Native to Japan and Central China. The leaves turn a brilliant red or purple in the fall.
 
14. A. palmatum Thunberg Palmate Maple; Japanese Maple Shrub or tree, to 8 m; branchlets glabrous. Leaves deeply 5-9-lobed or parted, 5-10 cm across, subcordate, the lobes lance-ovate or lance-oblong, acuminate with doubly serrate margins, bright green and glabrous below; petioles glabrous, 1.5-4.5 cm. Flowers purple, in small corymbs; pedicels glabrous. Fruit with wings spreading at an obtuse angle and incurved above, the area over the seed glabrous. Many different cultivars are grown.
 
15. A. pennsylvanicum L. Moosewood Tree, rarely to 12 m; branchlets smooth, becoming conspicuously striped with white lines. Leaves roundish-ovate, 3-lobed at the apex, 12-18 cm long, subcordate, the lobes acuminate, serrulate, ferrugineous pubescent beneath when youg; petiols 2-7 cm, also ferrugineous pubescent when young. Flowers yellow, in pendulous racemes 10-15 cm long; pedicels glabrous. Fruit with wings spreading at right angles. Native to eastern North America. The striped red and white branches are conspicuous in winter. The leaves turn bright yellow in fall.
 
16. A. platanoides L. Norway Maple Tree to 30 m; branchlets glabrous. Leaves simple, 5-lobed, 10-18 cm across, the lobes acuminate, remotely dentate with pointed teeth, bright green beneath, bearded in the axils of the veins. Flowers greenish-yellow, in many-flowered corymbs. Fruits pendulous, with nearly horizontally spreading wings, the seed area glabrous. Native to Europe and the Caucasus. Leaves yellow in the fall. A good shade tree and often planted along streets.
 
17. A. pseudoplatanus L. Sycamore Maple Tree, to 30 m; branchlets glabrous. Leaves 5-lobed, 8-16 cm across, cordate, the lobes ovate and coarsely crenate-serrate, dark green above, glaucescent and mostly glabrous beneath , sometimes pubescent on the veins. Flowers yellowish-green, in pendulous panicles. Fruit with spreading at an acute to right angle, glabrous. Native to Europe and western Asia. Large trees that grow well in exposed situations, including along maritime coasts.
 
18. A. rubrum L. Red Maple Tree, to 40 m; branchlets glabrous. Leaves 3-5-lobed, 6-10 cm long, subcordate with triangular-ovate, shortly acuminate unequally crenate-serrate lobes, dark green above, glaucous beneath and usually pubescent on the veins; petioles 5-10 cm, often red. Flowers red, rearely yellowish, with petals. Fruit with narrowly spreading wings, glabrous, usually bright red when young. Native to eastern North America. The red flowers distinguish this species in spring, the red fruits in summer. In fall, the leaves become bright scarlet or yellow.
 
19. A. saccharum Sugar Maple Tree, to 40 m; with gray, furrowed bark. Leaves 3-5 lobed, 8-14 cm across, the lobes acuminate and sparingly coarsely dentate, usually light green and glabrous beneath. Flowers on pendulous, hairy pedicels 3-7 cm long, greenish yellow, campanulate. Fruit with slightly divergent wings, glabrous over the nutlet (and elsewhere). Native to eastern North America, from Ontario and Québec to Texas, Mississippi, and Alabama. Best known for the sugar obtained from its sap, but also valuable for its very hard and attractive wood.
 
20. A. saccharinum L. Silver Maple Tree, to 40 m. Leaves deeply 5-lobed to cleft, 8-14 cm across, bright green above, silvery white beneath and pubescent when young; with deeply and doubly serrate acuminate lobes, the middle lobe often 3-lobed; petioles 8-12 cm. Flowers greenish, without petals, short-stalked. Fruit with divergent, falcate wings, pubescent when young, on pendulous pedicels. Native to eastern North America. Fall foliage is yellow. This species does not do well in alkaline soils, the leaves soon becoming pale and developing blackened tips.
 
21. A. triflorum Komarov Three-flowered Maple Tree, to 8 m; branchlets soon glabrous. Leaflets 4-8 cm long, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, entire or with 1-3 coarse teeth, glaucous beneath, pubescent over the midrib but glabrous elsewhere, the petiole 3-6 cm long, sparingly pilose. Inflorescence with 3 flowers, pedicels pubescent. Fruit with nearly straight wings spreading at an obtuse angle, densely pubescent over the nutlets. Native to Manchuria and Korea.
 
22. A. truncatum Bunge. Truncate Maple Tree, 8-10 m tall with bark that is rougher and more deeply fissured than any other species of Acer; branches green to purplish or yellow-gray,glabrous. Leaves simple, 5-7-lobed,6-10 cm wide, the base truncate or cordate, the lobes ovate to triangular with entire margins and acuminate apices; petioles 5-8 cm. Inflorescences terminal corymbs. Flowers greenish yellow, appearing after the leaves. in erect corymbs. Samaras 3-4 cm long, with wings spreading at a right or obtuse angle, the seed area smooth. Native to Northern China, Amur, Sakhalin, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria. The leaves turn yellow in fall.
 
منبع:
http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/aceracea.htm
نارگیل
http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/fieldbio/emmae24/aceraceaepage.html
http://herbarium.usu.edu/taxa/Aceraceae.html

نوشته شده در 02/03/1394 شنبه ساعت 15:48:22 توسط مهندس احمد یزدانی


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